“Open Science School aims at changing the way we learn using non-conventional approaches”
Design nowadays has diverged and expanded, having developed tools linked to ethnography, arts or technology that allow us to connect to people. Design and tools developed by designers can be the catalyzer for interdisciplinary collaborations.
The Rochdale principles for cooperative societies
The Rochdale Principles, according to the 1995 ICA revision, can be summarised as follows.
FIRST: Voluntary and open membership
The first of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operative societies must have an open and voluntary membership. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, "Co-operatives are voluntary organisations, open to all persons able to use their services and willing to accept the responsibilities of membership, without gender, social, racial, political or religious discrimination."
To discriminate socially is to make a distinction between people on the basis of class or category. Examples of social discrimination include racial, religious, sexual, sexual orientation, disability, and ethnic discrimination. To fulfil the first Rochdale Principle, a Co-operative society should not prevent anyone willing to participate from doing so on any of these grounds. However, this does not prohibit the co-operative from setting reasonable and relevant ground rules for membership, such as residing in a specific geographic area or paying a membership fee to join, so long as all persons meeting such criteria are able to participate if they so choose.
Motivations and rewards
Given the voluntary nature of co-operatives, members need reasons to participate. Each person's motivations will be unique and will vary from one co-operative to another, but they will often be a combination of the following:
- Financial – Some co-operatives are able to provide members with financial benefits.
- Quality of life – Serving the community through a co-operative because doing service makes one's own life better is perhaps the most significant motivation for volunteering. Included here would be the benefits people get from being with other people, staying active, and above all having a sense of the value of ourselves in society that may not be as clear in other areas of life.
- Giving back – Many people have in some way benefited from the work of a co-operative and volunteer to give back.
- Altruism – Some volunteer for the benefit of others.
- A sense of duty – Some see participation in community as a responsibility that comes with citizenship. In this case, they may not describe themselves as volunteers.
- Career experience – Volunteering offers experiences that can add to career prospects.
SECOND: Democratic member control
The second of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operative societies must have democratic member control. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, “Co-operatives are democratic organizations controlled by their members, who actively participate in setting their policies and making decisions. Men and women serving as elected representatives are accountable to the membership. In primary co-operatives members have equal voting rights (one member, one vote) and co-operatives at other levels are also organised in a democratic manner.”
THIRD: Member economic participation
Member economic participation is one of the defining features of co-operative societies, and constitutes the third Rochdale Principle in the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity. According to the ICA, co-operatives are enterprises in which “Members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their co-operative. At least part of that capital is usually the common property of the co-operative. Members usually receive limited compensation, if any, on capital subscribed as a condition of membership. Members allocate surpluses for any or all of the following purposes: developing their co-operative, possibly by setting up reserves, part of which at least would be indivisible; benefiting members in proportion to their transactions with the co-operative; and supporting other activities approved by the membership.” This principle, in turn, can be broken down into a number of constituent parts.
The first part of this principle states that “Members contribute equitably to, and democratically control, the capital of their co-operative. At least part of that capital is usually the common property of the co-operative.” This enshrines democratic control over the co-operative, and how its capital is used.
Limitations on member compensation and appropriate use of surpluses
The second part of the principle deals with how members are compensated for funds invested in a Co-operative, and how surpluses should be used. Unlike for-profit corporations, co-operatives are a form of social enterprise. Given this, there are at least three purposes for which surplus funds can be used, or distributed, by a Co-operative.
- “Members usually receive limited compensation, if any, on capital subscribed as a condition of membership.”
- “Developing their co-operative, possibly by setting up reserves, part of which at least would be indivisible;” in other words, the surplus can be reinvested in the co-operative.
- "Benefiting members in proportion to their transactions with the co-operative;” for example, a Consumers' Co-operative may decide to pay dividends based on purchases (or a 'divvi').
“Supporting other activities approved by the membership.”
FOURTH: Autonomy and independence
The fourth of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operative societies must be autonomous and independent. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, “Co-operatives are autonomous, self-help organizations controlled by their members. If they enter into agreements with other organizations, including governments, or raise capital from external sources, they do so on terms that ensure democratic control by their members and maintain their cooperative autonomy.”
FIFTH: Education, training, and information
The fifth of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operative societies must provide education and training to their members and the public. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, “Co-operatives provide education and training for their members, elected representatives, managers and employees so they can contribute effectively to the development of their co-operatives. They inform the general public – particularly young people and opinion leaders – about the nature and benefits of co-operation.”
SIXTH: Cooperation among cooperatives
The sixth of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operatives cooperate with each other. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, “Co-operatives serve their members most effectively and strengthen the co-operative movement by working together through local, national, regional and international structures.”
SEVENTH: Concern for community
The seventh of the Rochdale Principles states that co-operative societies must have concern for their communities. According to the ICA's Statement on the Co-operative Identity, “Co-operatives work for the sustainable development of their communities through policies approved by their members.”
The Global Open Science Hardware manifesto
Global Open Science Hardware extends the philosophy of open source coding to making real objects. It is rapidly gaining importance as hardware manufacturing becomes more digital and DIY, with advances, such as 3D printing and modular electronic controllers. This brings exciting new opportunities for collaboration, both between academics and with interested citizen scientists.
See this link for the original source. The Global Open Science Hardware (GOSH) movement seeks to reduce barriers between diverse creators and users of scientific tools to support the pursuit and growth of knowledge. These are our principles:
GOSH is accessible
Anyone can create, obtain, study, modify, distribute, use, and share designs of open science hardware projects.
Tools are open, free (libre), and licensed as such.
Our documents are understandable and communicative.
We share rather than act territorially.
For socioeconomic accessibility, materials are lowest cost and easy to obtain whenever possible.
Open Science Hardware is maintainable and repairable.
GOSH makes science better
Scientific experiments using open hardware are more reproducible, more comparable, and more likely to be replicated.
Comparing data across sectors, standards, and countries is more likely when using open hardware.
Reproducibility is a hallmark of good science, and open science hardware allows for greater reproducibility.
Open science hardware makes more science.
1,000 heads are better than 1.
GOSH is ethical
People have a right to knowledge, and thus a right to the tools to gain that knowledge.
Users align their technologies with their values by becoming creators.
The benefits of science should be shared with everyone, and cause no harm.
Open science hardware is open to everybody, without considerations of scholarly background, country, race, sex, or religion and does not tolerate discrimination on these grounds.
GOSH is used for peaceful purposes.
GOSH changes the culture of science
We advocate for open science, which requires open science hardware.
We move science toward communal, accessible, and collaborative practices, and away from territorial, proprietary, institutional, and individualistic practices.
We create more options for people to pursue research, both inside existing institutions (academia, NGOs, government, non-profit, start-up, business) and outside institutions altogether.
We make spaces for science beyond established institutions (e.g. academia and NGOs) so there are more options for research trajectories.
We broaden the methods of pursuing way we do science, so the ways of knowing from a wide range of people are part of knowledge creation, now and in the future.
GOSH democratizes science
More people and more types of people can take part in and benefit from science.
We break silos, both between disciplines and between types of institutions, bridging different domains of knowledge—you don’t have to be a “biologist” to do biology, or have a degree to do research.
Open science hardware decreases the divide between the global north and south, professionals and amateurs, particularly in low incomes countries.
Open science hardware puts local knowledge in action and contributes to cognitive justice.
Open science hardware allows a diversity of values and voices to ask research questions and to make technology.
GOSH has no high priests
We have community champions, not a central authority.
We are an active community invested in shared accomplishments.
We build on each other’s work rather than work in isolation.
The more, the merrier.
GOSH empowers people
To pursue research based on their interests.
To pursue research based on the needs of their communities.
To conduct research through many forms of support (including financial, personnel, time, material supports)
To achieve their ideas at low cost.
To understand how their tools work through borrowing, building, and sharing technology.
To have technological transparency and public oversight.
To build a movement.
GOSH has no black boxes
(”Black boxes” refer to any complex piece of equipment with contents that are mysterious to the user.
Technologies are open source.)
Through borrowing, building, and sharing technology, we understand how our tools work.
Building GOSH is a form of learning by doing.
Open Science Hardware increases technological transparency and public oversight.
GOSH is impactful tools
Technologies are adaptable and therefore can directly address local social and technical needs.
There is a direct link between what a community of users needs and science hardware because the community of users can access, change, adapt, and use the tools.
Open science hardware allows users to post knowledge and results early and often, allowing tools to be agile and responsive.
Open science hardware is designed to scale.
GOSH allows multiple futures for science
Research can happen in or out of the academy, in or out of the lab, in or out of commercial spaces.
GOSH changes the norms within established, institutional science where researchers openly share knowledge and technology.
With GOSH Indigenous/Non-scientist peoples can make research in their native language and adapted to their local context.
GOSH allows science to happen in places it would not usually happen.
GOSH aims to make cultural change so these opportunities are intergenerational.